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Bainoceirus reference by AltairSky Bainoceirus reference by AltairSky
:star:Complete reference sheet for the genus Bainoceirus commonly called Landpike. Please download for full resolution!
:star:This is a closed species. Ask me if you want to create one. 
:star:Text description is here: terazed.deviantart.com/art/Bai…
:star:Landpikes are fishes, they behave like fishes and they are as smart as a fish or geko. They are not ponies and they can't cook pies so pelase no anthropomorphization unless it's a joke.

Etymology and terminology
Bainoceirus means walk-with-hands from Greek, βαίνω Baino- walk + χείρ ceir hand. Common names are Landpike, Heronfish.

Taxonomy
Classification of Bainoceirus is controversial. It is considered an amphibian but recent studies confirmed that this animal is genetically closer to fishes.

Evolution
While tetrapods ancestor was lobe-finned fishes (like Tiktaalik), Bainoceirus probably evolved from a mudskipper fish ancestor. 

Morphology and physiology
Bainoceirus are carnivorous, and feed mainly on fishes, mollusks and crustaceans. The largest species can eat lizards, frogs and reptiles. They are characterized by a long neck and strong forelegs used for locomotion. The hind legs are vestigial and the tail is used like a third leg to help standing and during slow walk. Bainoceirus can run very fast for a short time on its long front legs, using its tail for balance.
Bainoceirus species can vary in size, depending on their environment and diet: Bainoceirus nasicornis is small, the size of an house sparrow and his weird beak is adapted to prey on mollusks with an hard shell. Bainoceirus elegans is as big as a duck and, with its long snout and neck, can prey on fishes hidden under the mud. Bainoceirus regius is as big as a stork and can swallow even small alligators.
All Bainoceirus species have frontal stereoscopical vision, like owls, needed to track down fast moving preys, enabling very accurate strikes.

Circulation 
One of the most interesting feature of Bainoceirus is its four chambered heart. Unlike all amphibians, oxygenated blood never mix with venous blood. This allow Bainoceirus to move quickly and be very active with an high metabolism rate. Once believed a cold blooded animal, Bainoceirus is now proved having its body always 5 to 10°C warmer than external temperature, despite varying environmental temperature. The extra heat is mainly produced by the exertion of huge foreleg musculature and erect posture.
Respiration
Bainoceirus has only one long, dorsal lung. It is derived from fishes swim bladder, starting from the base of its neck and ending under its pelvis. Without a thoracic diaphragm, Bainoceirus breathe swallowing air into the lung, like frogs and reptiles. It is proved that Bainoceirus can absorb oxygen also through its skin.
Bainoceirus lung allow them to easily float, but they are a poor swimmers.
Skin
Bainoceirus skin is smooth and always covered with mucous to allow skin respiration. Differently, the head is covered by bony plates, like in fishes.
Digestion
Bainoceirus have a very fish like jaw bony joint. they use their teeth to grab food. They have a very large esophagus, allowing them to swallow very large preys whole. The food then moves through the esophagus into a muscular crop-like structure at the base of the neck. After the first digestion, it travel to the true stomach where most digestion occurs. The food then proceeds to the small intestine. Bainoceirus carry pancreatic juice and bile from the liver to the small intestine, where the fluids digest the food and extract the nutrients. When the food passes into the large intestine, the water is reabsorbed and wastes are routed to the cloaca. All wastes exit the body through the cloaca.
Nervous system
Bainoceirus has a well developed nervous system which consists of a brain, spinal cord and nerves. In the brain, the medulla oblongata regulates respiration, digestion, and other automatic functions. Muscular coordination and posture are controlled by the cerebellum. The relative size of their cerebrum is very small, but it is much larger compared to other amphibian's brain, and can be compared to the brain relative size of reptiles.
Bainoceirus do not have external ears; the eardrums are directly exposed. As in all animals, the ear contains semicircular canals which help control balance and orientation.

Life cycle
The life of Bainoceirus starts with an egg. A female generally lays gelatinous egg masses containing thousands of eggs, in water. Eggs and hatchlings are very vulnerable to predation: many individuals will breed at the same time, overwhelming the actions of predators; the majority of the offspring will still die due to predation, but there is a greater chance some will survive. Eggs hatch and continue life as full acquatic larvae (tadpoles). Tadpoles are carnivorous like the adults, and feed on fish and mollusks. Tadpoles are highly vulnerable to predation by larger fish, birds and mammals.
The tadpole stage may be as short as a month for the smaller species, or as long as a few years for bigger ones.
Bainoceirus can live for many years; though little is known about their life span in the wild, captive Bainoceirus are recorded living up to 20 years.

Coloration
Mimetism is very important for Bainoceirus: in fact, it is needed to hide from predators and sneak up on preys. 
For this reason, their coloration can vary depending on different habitats and species. Like most amphibians and fishes, they can change their colors slightly from lighter to darker, depending on light conditions.
During mating season, males fins and heads became colorful to attract females and protect their territory. After mating, their colors return brownish and are almost indistinguishable from females.

Reproduction
Once adult Bainoceirus reach maturity, the males will take control of a water source. Males are territorial and they often fight for the best breeding site. Fights consist in color display and rarely involve biting.
Fertilization is external: the egg and sperm meet outside of the body. The female releases her eggs, which the male covers with a sperm solution. The eggs then swell and develop a protective coating. The eggs are typically brown or black, with a clear, gelatin-like covering.

Call
Bainoceirus don't have vocal chords, but they can make hissing and barking noises very similar to gecko vocalizations. It is presumed they can make sounds by moving air through different branches of their posterior lung.

Distribution and conservation status
Bainoceirus inhabit tropical and subtropical humid areas, swamps, ponds and lagoons and prefer stagnant shallow water. Researchers suppose stagional floods are responsible for their diffusion into new colonies. In fact, during floods and inundations, their ability to float and go downstream allow them to find new wet areas and expand their population. 
Bainoceirus formerly occurred in Madagascar, North and South America, Asia, Europe, Australia and New Zealand with 63 known different species but is now probably extinct. 
There are many reasons for its disappearance. Introduction of predators in their habitat (Like dogs, cats, rats in New Zealand and Australia; or Pythons in Florida), Pollution of the water, Habitat destruction and fragmentation. Flood control prevented the last remaining specimen to meet each other and breed. 
The last remaining Bainoceirus regius died in Georgia Aquarium in 2007; unfortunately captive breeding attempts failed. 
A few specimen of B. elegans, B. chloris, B. longus and B. nasicornis are preserved at the National Museum of Natural History. Eventually, cloning attempt are being discussed. 
Recent sightings of B. okeefenokensis may indicate this species is still living at Okeefenokee swamp, however researches did not confirm the presence of this animal.


texture by DougFromFinance
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:iconcartoonben:
CartoonBen Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2017  Student Digital Artist
That's wicked. It looks  like a dragon with a mandrill/gar pike shaped face.
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:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks!
Reply
:iconcartoonben:
CartoonBen Featured By Owner Jun 10, 2017  Student Digital Artist
You're welcome. :D (Big Grin) 
Reply
:iconantonellisofbbender:
AntonellisofbBender Featured By Owner Jan 28, 2017  Student Filmographer
WOW
Reply
:iconouli-ukuli:
Ouli-Ukuli Featured By Owner Jan 14, 2017
I love how detailed your description of this species is. And the illustrations to match it are fantastic! It feels all the more real thanks to how you present it.
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:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jan 14, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thank you very much!
Reply
:iconcardiologist:
Cardiologist Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2016  Professional Filmographer
I would love to draw one of these babies. Omg
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2016  Hobbyist Digital Artist
aww go ahead if you wish ^_^
Reply
:iconcardiologist:
Cardiologist Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2016  Professional Filmographer
omg thank you!!!
Reply
:icontalonv:
TalonV Featured By Owner Dec 13, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
These are so cool! I would love to be able to draw a Bainoceirus elegans~ ;w;
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Dec 13, 2015  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks <3
Reply
:icontalonv:
TalonV Featured By Owner Dec 31, 2016  Hobbyist General Artist
Would you mind terribly if I sketched one up? X3
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jan 1, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
nope, go ahead ^^
Reply
:icontalonv:
TalonV Featured By Owner Jan 2, 2017  Hobbyist General Artist
You are so awesome!!! Thank you! Will be posting it tomorrow~ X3 <3
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:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jan 3, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
no probs ^^
Reply
:icontalonv:
TalonV Featured By Owner Dec 13, 2015  Hobbyist General Artist
Most welcome! :'3
Reply
:iconsierrasweet:
SierraSweet Featured By Owner Jan 8, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
Oh my, I want one! One that resembles a beta would be amazing!
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:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jan 9, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
lol a beta?
Reply
:iconsierrasweet:
SierraSweet Featured By Owner Jan 9, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
*Betta Fish
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jan 10, 2013  Hobbyist Digital Artist
aww I love bettas, they are awesome
Reply
:iconsierrasweet:
SierraSweet Featured By Owner Jan 10, 2013  Hobbyist General Artist
I have a pure white boy and girl that are my babies :3
Reply
:iconalliekiitty:
alliekiitty Featured By Owner Sep 1, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Have you ever seen tremors? They remind me of what they turn into in one of the movies. But these are more colorful. and have eyes.
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Sep 2, 2012  Hobbyist Digital Artist
haha yes I've seen it and I love them! But the similar look was not intentional XD
Reply
:iconlalunatique:
LaLunatique Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2011  Hobbyist General Artist
omg, that's so freaking awesome *-* I just like all those details and colors... and creature xD Anyway, great job!
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Dec 12, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks ^_^
Reply
:iconfyra007:
fyra007 Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2011  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
awesome creature!
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks ^_^
Reply
:iconfyra007:
fyra007 Featured By Owner Sep 21, 2011  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
your welcome!
Reply
:iconmasonday:
masonday Featured By Owner Jul 23, 2011
COOL!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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:iconmonstermyth23:
monstermyth23 Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2011
This looks absolutely awesome! :D
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
thanks ^_^
Reply
:iconmonstermyth23:
monstermyth23 Featured By Owner Jun 30, 2011
No problemo
Reply
:iconlucern7:
Lucern7 Featured By Owner May 24, 2011  Student General Artist
Neat they loosly look like a concept I have in the works I call a Kiwiraptor (Kiwi bird+raptor)
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner May 25, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Hehe awesome ^_^
Reply
:iconlindigaro-k:
Lindigaro-K Featured By Owner Mar 20, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
hey, that's nice :D
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Mar 21, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thanks ^_^
Reply
:iconlindigaro-k:
Lindigaro-K Featured By Owner Mar 20, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
,it's so unique!
Reply
:iconevilduckie227:
Evilduckie227 Featured By Owner Mar 15, 2011
This looks like so much fun!! :D
Reply
:iconshadowrebirth37:
ShadowRebirth37 Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
I want one has a pet :noes:
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
me too :O
Reply
:iconshadowrebirth37:
ShadowRebirth37 Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
That'd be awesome to ride one around town and see people's faces. :XD:
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:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
XD
Reply
:iconshadowrebirth37:
ShadowRebirth37 Featured By Owner Mar 13, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
It'd be hysterical. Until the thing snags and eats someone's hat. Or face. That might be taken the wrong way. |D
Reply
:icondougfromfinance:
DougFromFinance Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Professional General Artist
Nice work!! Loving it!
Reply
:iconsargeantsweety:
SargeantSweety Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
:jawdrop: ugliest things ive ever seeeen!

but whats so awesome is that these kind of guys seem aweful realistic like they might have lived one time just like the dinosaurs :) so wow this is impressive
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Lol thanks!
I luv ugly things!
Reply
:iconsargeantsweety:
SargeantSweety Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
lol yea i can tell

youre welcome x3
Reply
:iconsamh0und:
SAMH0UND Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Hoooly crap! You really went all out on these guys! They're awesome! I loved reading all the information you've gathered! I never thought anyone would go as far to mention circulatory systems! I call that dedication and you, sir, have done an extremely good job!

I love 'em! And they look fantastic!
Reply
:iconaltairsky:
AltairSky Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Hobbyist Digital Artist
Thanks :hug:
Reply
:iconsuperdemon-inuyasha:
Superdemon-Inuyasha Featured By Owner Mar 7, 2011  Hobbyist Traditional Artist
Interesting 8D I like ;u; great job on these! 8D

Question: Would they be fast? Because I'm trying to design or at least find creature designs for racing mounts in a story I'm making XD Some races would be in the water or over water too, but also on land D8 If they are fast, I might think of making one for a random mount the main characters have to try to beat XD
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